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Antigonus I
Definitionby Donald L. Wasson

Antigonus I

Antigonus I Monophthalmus ("the One-Eyed") (382 -301 BCE) was one of the successor kings to Alexander the Great, controlling Macedonia and Greece. When Alexander the Great died in 323 BCE, a conflict known as the Wars of the Diadochi ensued...
Sogdiana
Definitionby Antoine Simonin

Sogdiana

Sogdiana (or Sogdia) is a region in Central Asia between the mighty rivers Iaxartes in the north and Oxus in the south. Its eastern and western limits are more difficult to determine, especially since the toponym Sogdiana covered different...
Kalash Culture
Definitionby Dr. Muhammad Kashif Ali

Kalash Culture

The Kalash people, also called Kafir (Non-believer), Black Robe and Siah Posh, live in the three sub-valleys of Kalash; Bumboret, Rumbor and Birir, in the modern-day District Chitral, Pakistan. The Kalasha are ancient tribe of Pakistan and...
Battle of the Granicus
Definitionby Donald L. Wasson

Battle of the Granicus

The Battle of the Granicus in May 334 BCE was Alexander the Great's (356-323 BCE) first major victory against the forces of the Achaemenid Empire. Alexander had crossed the Hellespont with his combined Macedonian and Greek forces and stepped...
Mark Antony
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Mark Antony

Marcus Antonius (l. 83-30 BCE, known popularly as Mark Antony) was a Roman general and statesman best known for his love affair with Cleopatra VII (l. c.69-30 BCE) of Egypt. As Julius Caesar's friend and right-hand man, he gave the funeral...
Scipio Africanus the Elder
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Scipio Africanus the Elder

Scipio Africanus Major (l. 236-183 BCE) received his epithet due to his military victories in Africa which won the Second Punic War for Rome against Carthage. He is also known as Scipio the Elder. He was born Publius Cornelius Scipio in 236...
Battle of Issus
Definitionby Donald L. Wasson

Battle of Issus

The Battle of Issus, on 5 November 333 BCE, was Alexander the Great's second battle against the Persian army and the first direct engagement with King Darius III, near the village of Issus in southern modern-day Turkey. It was a major victory...
Trebizond
Definitionby Livius

Trebizond

Trapezus (Greek: Τραπεζοῦς) or Trebizond was a Greek city on the southern shore of the Black Sea, modern Trabzon. According to the Christian author Eusebius, writing more than a millennium after...
Caligula
Definitionby Donald L. Wasson

Caligula

Caligula (Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus Germanicus) was Roman emperor from 37 to 41 CE. Among the great emperors of the Roman Empire stand Augustus and Marcus Aurelius. At the other end of the spectrum is Emperor Caligula who the historian...
Claudius
Definitionby Donald L. Wasson

Claudius

Claudius was Roman emperor from 41 to 54 CE. After the death of Emperor Caligula (37-41 CE) and his family at the hands of the Praetorian Guard, the future Emperor Claudius was found quivering behind a set of curtains, fearing for his own...
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