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Uruk
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Uruk

Uruk was one of the most important cities (at one time, the most important) in ancient Mesopotamia. According to the Sumerian King List, it was founded by King Enmerkar sometime around 4500 BCE. Located in the southern region of Sumer (modern...
Mesopotamia: The Rise of the Cities
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Mesopotamia: The Rise of the Cities

Once upon a time, in the land known as Sumer, the people built a temple to their god who had conquered the forces of chaos and brought order to the world. They built this temple at a place called Eridu, which was “one of the most southerly...
The Ancient City
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

The Ancient City

In the study of the ancient world a City is generally defined as a large populated urban center of commerce and administration with a system of laws and, usually, regulated means of sanitation. This is only one definition, however, and the...
Mesopotamia
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Mesopotamia

Mesopotamia (from the Greek, meaning 'between two rivers') was an ancient region located in the eastern Mediterranean bounded in the northeast by the Zagros Mountains and in the southeast by the Arabian Plateau, corresponding to modern-day...
Inanna
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Inanna

Inanna is the ancient Sumerian goddess of love, sensuality, fertility, procreation, and also of war. She later became identified by the Akkadians and Assyrians as the goddess Ishtar, and further with the Hittite Sauska, the Phoenician Astarte...
Early Dynastic Period (Mesopotamia)
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Early Dynastic Period (Mesopotamia)

The Early Dynastic Period of Mesopotamia is the modern-day archaeological term for the era in Mesopotamian history – 2900-2334 BCE – during which some of the most significant cultural advances were made including the rise of the...
Akkad
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Akkad

Akkad was the seat of the Akkadian Empire (2334-2218 BCE), the first multi-national political entity in the world, founded by Sargon the Great (r. 2334-2279 BCE) who unified Mesopotamia under his rule and set the model for later Mesopotamian...
Facade of Inanna's Temple at Uruk
Imageby Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin

Facade of Inanna's Temple at Uruk

This is part of the facade of the temple of Inanna at Uruk. There are standing male and female deities in alternate niches. Each figure holds a vessel in his/her hands and pours life-giving water forth on to the earth. The cuneiform inscriptions...
Facade of Inanna Temple from Uruk at the Iraq Museum
Imageby Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin

Facade of Inanna Temple from Uruk at the Iraq Museum

This is part of the facade of the temple of goddess Inanna at Uruk (modern-day Warka, southern Iraq) and is made of bricks. There are standing male and female deities in alternating niches. Both hold a vase, pouring water in double streams...
Vase of Utu-Hegal of Uruk
Imageby Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin

Vase of Utu-Hegal of Uruk

This is only known bronze/copper alloy vessel inscribed with the name of Utu-Hegal, King of Uruk. Utu-Hegal was considered a hero, who drove the hated Gutian invaders out of Southern Mesopotmia. The inscribed cuneiform text mentions the name...
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