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Duchy of Athens
Definitionby Michael Goodyear

Duchy of Athens

The Duchy of Athens was a Latin or Frankish state in Greece that existed from 1205 to 1458 CE. It was created in the aftermath of the Fourth Crusade (1202-1204 CE) and would be ruled for the majority of its history by the Burgundian de la...
Thessaly and the Duchy of Neopatras
Definitionby Michael Goodyear

Thessaly and the Duchy of Neopatras

Thessaly was an independent state in medieval Greece from 1267 or 1268 to 1394 CE, first as the Greek-ruled Thessaly and later as the Catalan and Latin-ruled Duchy of Neopatras. Under its sebastokrators, Thessaly was a thorn in the side of...
Despotate of the Morea
Definitionby Michael Goodyear

Despotate of the Morea

The Despotate of the Morea was a semi-autonomous appanage of the later Byzantine Empire. The Byzantines retook part of the Peloponnese in Southern Greece in 1262 CE, but the Morea was only officially governed by semi-autonomous despots of...
Despotate of Epirus
Definitionby Michael Goodyear

Despotate of Epirus

The Despotate of Epirus was one of the successor states of the Byzantine Empire when it disintegrated following the Fourth Crusade's capture of Constantinople in 1204 CE. It was originally the most successful of those successor states, coming...
Athens
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Athens

Athens, Greece, with its famous Acropolis, has come to symbolize the whole of the country in the popular imagination, and not without cause. It not only has its iconic ruins and the famous port of Piraeus but, thanks to ancient writers, its...
The Plague at Athens, 430-427 BCE
Articleby John Horgan

The Plague at Athens, 430-427 BCE

In the second year of the Peloponnesian War, 430 BCE, an outbreak of plague erupted in Athens. The illness would persist throughout scattered parts of Greece and the eastern Mediterranean until finally dying out in 426 BCE. The origin of...
Fourth Crusade
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Fourth Crusade

The Fourth Crusade (1202-1204 CE) was called by Pope Innocent III (r. 1198-1216 CE) to retake Jerusalem from its current Muslim overlords. However, in a bizarre combination of cock-ups, financial constraints, and Venetian trading ambitions...
The Delian League, Part 6: The Decelean War and the Fall of Athens (413/2-404/3 BCE)
Articleby Christopher Planeaux

The Delian League, Part 6: The Decelean War and the Fall of Athens (413/2-404/3 BCE)

This text is part of an article series on the Delian League. The sixth and last phase of the Delian League begins with the Decelean War, also referred to as the Ionian War, and ends with the surrender of Athens (413/2 – 404/3 BCE). The...
Pericles
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Pericles

Pericles (l. 495–429 BCE) was a prominent Greek statesman, orator, and general during the Golden Age of Athens. The period in which he led Athens, in fact, has been called the Age of Pericles due to his influence, not only on his city's fortunes...
1204: The Sack of Constantinople
Articleby Mark Cartwright

1204: The Sack of Constantinople

In 1204 CE the unthinkable happened and Constantinople, after nine centuries of withstanding all comers, was brutally sacked. Even more startling was the fact that the perpetrators were not any of the traditional enemies of the Byzantine...
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