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The Meroe Head
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

The Meroe Head

The Meroe Head, so-called because it was found beneath a temple in the ruins of Meroe, is the head of a larger-than life statue of Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus (better known as Augustus Caesar) the first Emperor of Rome (reigned 31 BCE-14...
Roman Standard
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Roman Standard

The Roman Standard (Latin: Signum or Signa Romanum) was a pennant, flag, or banner, suspended or attached to a staff or pole, which identified a Roman legion (infantry) or Equites (cavalry). The Standard of a cavalry unit was emblazoned with...
Cleopatra Selene II
Definitionby Arienne King

Cleopatra Selene II

Cleopatra Selene II (40 - c. 5 BCE) was a member of the Ptolemaic Dynasty who became the queen of Mauretania upon her marriage to King Juba II of Numidia (48 BCE - 23 CE). Though more obscure than her famous mother, Cleopatra VII (69-30 BCE...
The Battle of Philippi 42 BCE
Articleby Mark Cartwright

The Battle of Philippi 42 BCE

The Battle of Philippi in 42 BCE was an all-Roman affair fought between the young Octavian, chosen heir of Julius Caesar, and the mercurial Mark Antony, widely regarded as the greatest living Roman general on the one side against Brutus and...
Meroe
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Meroe

Meroe was a wealthy metropolis of the ancient kingdom of Kush in what is today the Republic of Sudan. It was the latter day capital of the Kingdom of Kush (c. 1069 BCE-c.350 CE) after the earlier captial of Napata was sacked in c. 590 BCE...
Roman Empire
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Roman Empire

The Roman Empire, at its height (c. 117 CE), was the most extensive political and social structure in western civilization. By 285 CE the empire had grown too vast to be ruled from the central government at Rome and so was divided by Emperor...
Roman Empire under Augustus
Imageby Cristiano64

Roman Empire under Augustus

A map of the Roman Empire during the reign of Augustus 27 BCE - 14 CE. Yellow areas indicate the empire prior to Augustus' reign, green areas those gained subsequently, violet areas are client states of Rome.
Augustus as Pontifex Maximus (Detail)
Imageby Mark Cartwright

Augustus as Pontifex Maximus (Detail)

Marble statue of Emperor Augustus (27 BC-34 CE) dressed in his role as the high priest Pontifex Maximus, Corinth Archeological Museum.
Roman Warfare
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Roman Warfare

Roman warfare was remarkably successful over many centuries and across many territories. This was due to several important factors. Italy was a peninsula not easily attacked, there was a huge pool of fighting men to draw upon, a disciplined...
Augustus (Facial Reconstruction)
Imageby Daniel Voshart

Augustus (Facial Reconstruction)

A photorealistic reconstruction of what the Roman emperor Augustus (r. 27 BCE-14 CE) may have looked like as a young man. Pictured alongside the reconstruction are the busts and statuary used as references. From left to right and top to bottom...
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