Kena Upanishad, verses 1.1–3, partially 4 (opens with salutations to Ganesha)
The thick text is the Upanishad scripture, the small text in the margins and edges are an unknown scholar's notes and comments in the typical Hindu style of a minor bhasya.
The early Upanishads (Upanisad, Upanisat) are scriptures of Hinduism. Variously dated by scholars to have been composed between 900 BCE to about 200 BCE, these texts are in Sanskrit language and embedded within a layer of the Vedas. They contain a mixture of philosophy and mystical speculations, many set in the form of dialogues or pedagogic style. Their central teachings include the concepts of Atman (soul, self) and Brahman (metaphysical reality).
These manuscripts are preserved at the Lalchand Research Library, Ancient Indian Manuscript Collection, DAV College Digital Library Initiative, Chandigarh India, in association with SP Lohia and Indorama Charitable Trust. The texts are over 2000 years old, the re-copying into this particular manuscript is dated to a pre-1867 reproduction (exact date unknown). The manuscript shows significant decay and damage on the sides and its edges.