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Hamaxia
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Hamaxia

Hamaxia (now known as Sinek Kalesi or Sinekkalesi, near the modern Alanya) was a city in western Cilicia in southern Turkey known for its lush landscape, cedar forests, and thriving timber export business. It was located on a high hill near...
The Portuguese Colonization of São Tomé and Principe
Articleby Mark Cartwright

The Portuguese Colonization of São Tomé and Principe

São Tomé and Principe are islands located in the Gulf of Guinea in West Africa. They were uninhabited before being colonised by the Portuguese from 1486. So involved were they with the slave trade, they became known as the Slave Islands where...
Uluburun Shipwreck
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Uluburun Shipwreck

The Uluburun shipwreck is a Bronze Age vessel discovered lying off the coast of Kas, Turkey. The ship, probably originally from Phoenicia/Canaan, dates to between 1330 and 1300 BCE and was carrying a full cargo of trade goods, perhaps from...
Interrelations of Kerma and Pharaonic Egypt
Articleby P. Joseph D.

Interrelations of Kerma and Pharaonic Egypt

The vacillating nature of Ancient Egypt's associations with the Kingdom of Kerma may be described as one of expansion and contraction; a virtual tug-of-war between rival cultures. Structural changes in Egypt's administration led to alternating...
Estado da India
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Estado da India

The Estado da India (1505-1961) was the name the Portuguese gave to that part of their empire which stretched from India to East Asia. However, in its widest sense, the name includes all Portuguese colonies east of the Cape of Good Hope and...
Portuguese Macao
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Portuguese Macao

Macao (Macau) is located on a peninsula in the estuary of the Pearl River delta in southeast China and it was a Portuguese colonial settlement from c. 1557 until 1999. Macao was a major trade hub of the Portuguese Empire and with its unique...
Jang Bogo
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Jang Bogo

Jang Bogo (aka Chang Pogo or Gungbok) was a powerful Korean warlord, naval commander, and merchant who came to monopolise maritime trade in northeast Asia to such a degree that he was known as the 'King of the Yellow Sea' during the first...
Pepper
Definitionby James Hancock

Pepper

Since antiquity, pepper has always been the most important spice in the world. It played a central role in the medicines of ancient India and China, became a critical component of Roman food, and remained central in the cuisine of medieval...
The Camel Caravans of the Ancient Sahara
Articleby Mark Cartwright

The Camel Caravans of the Ancient Sahara

The camel caravans which crossed the great dunes of the Sahara desert began in antiquity but reached their golden period from the 9th century CE onwards. In their heyday caravans consisted of thousands of camels travelling from North Africa...
Aegean
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Aegean

The Aegean Sea lies between the coast of Greece and Asia Minor (modern-day Turkey). It contains over 2,000 islands which were settled by the ancient Greeks; the largest among them being Crete (Kriti) and the best known and most often photographed...