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Babylon at the time of the Kassites
Imageby MapMaster

Babylon at the time of the Kassites

A map of the Babylonian Empire during the time of the Kassites, roughly the 13th century BC. This map shows the probable river courses and coastline at that time.
Map of Sumer and Elam
Imageby Phirosiberia

Map of Sumer and Elam

Map with the locations of the main cities of Sumer and Elam.
Hammurabi
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Hammurabi

Hammurabi (r. 1792-1750 BCE) was the sixth king of the Amorite First Dynasty of Babylon best known for his famous law code which served as the model for others, including the Mosaic Law of the Bible. He was the first ruler able to successfully...
Sumer
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Sumer

Sumer was the southernmost region of ancient Mesopotamia (modern-day Iraq and Kuwait) which is generally considered the cradle of civilization. The name comes from Akkadian, the language of the north of Mesopotamia, and means “land of the...
Gula
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Gula

Gula (also known as Ninkarrak) is the Babylonian goddess of healing and patroness of doctors, healing arts, and medical practices. She is first attested to in the Ur III Period (2047-1750 BCE) where she is referenced as a great goddess of...
Sumerian Language
Definitionby Jason Moser

Sumerian Language

The Sumerian language was spoken in southern Mesopotamia before the 2nd millennium BCE and was the first language to be written in the cuneiform script. It is an isolate language meaning we know of no other languages that relate to it ancestrally...
Early Dynastic Period (Mesopotamia)
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Early Dynastic Period (Mesopotamia)

The Early Dynastic Period of Mesopotamia is the modern-day archaeological term for the era in Mesopotamian history – 2900-2334 BCE – during which some of the most significant cultural advances were made including the rise of the...
Ur-Nammu
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Ur-Nammu

Ur-Nammu (r. 2047-2030 BCE) was the founder of the Third Dynasty of Ur in Sumer who initiated the so-called Ur III Period (2047-1750 BCE) also known as the Sumerian Renaissance. He is best known as the king who composed the first complete...
The Curse of Agade: Naram-Sin's Battle with the Gods
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

The Curse of Agade: Naram-Sin's Battle with the Gods

The Curse of Agade is a story dated to the Ur III Period of Mesopotamia (2047-1750 BCE) though thought to be somewhat older in origin. It tells the story of the Akkadian king Naram-Sin (r. 2261-2224 BCE) and his confrontation with the gods...
The Ludlul-Bel-Nimeqi - Not Merely a Babylonian Job
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

The Ludlul-Bel-Nimeqi - Not Merely a Babylonian Job

The Ludlul-Bel-Nimeqi is a Babylonian poem which chronicles the lament of a good man suffering undeservedly. Also known as `The Poem of the Righteous Sufferer', the title translates as "I will praise the Lord of Wisdom". In the...
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