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The Mesopotamian Pantheon
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

The Mesopotamian Pantheon

The gods of the Mesopotamian region were not uniform in name, power, provenance or status in the hierarchy. Mesopotamian culture varied from region to region and, because of this, Marduk should not be regarded as King of the Gods in the same...
Shulgi of Ur
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Shulgi of Ur

Shulgi of Ur (r. 2029-1982 BCE) is considered the greatest king of the Ur III Period in Mesopotamia (2047-1750 BCE). His father was Ur-Nammu (r.2047-2030 BCE), who founded the Third Dynasty of Ur and helped to defeat the occupying forces...
Law Code of King Ur-Nammu
Imageby Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin

Law Code of King Ur-Nammu

This law code is considered the oldest known law code surviving today. Many terracotta tablets of this law code have been excavated at several archaeological sites in Mesopotamia. This tablet was found at Nippur (modern Nuffar, Al-Qadisiyah...
Advice for a Prince
Imageby Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin

Advice for a Prince

This literary text gives an advice to a prince on how a king should behave, with the agenda of securing tax exemptions for the cities of Babylon and Nippur. This clay tablet is a copy which was made between 700-650 BCE, of an earlier composition...
Diorite Mortar
Imageby Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin

Diorite Mortar

This mortar was an offering from Gudea (ruler of Lagash) to the god Enlil. Neo-Sumerian era, 2141-2122 BCE. From Nippur (modern Nuffar, Al-Qadisiyah Governorate, Iraq), southern Mesopotamia.(Istanbul Archaeological Museums/Ancient Orient...
Akkad
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Akkad

Akkad was the seat of the Akkadian Empire (2334-2218 BCE), the first multi-national political entity in the world, founded by Sargon the Great (r. 2334-2279 BCE) who unified Mesopotamia under his rule and set the model for later Mesopotamian...
Nanna
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Nanna

Nanna (also known as Nannar, Nanna-Suen, Sin, Asimbabbar, Namrasit, Inbu) is the Mesopotamian god of the moon and wisdom. He is one of the oldest gods in the Mesopotamian pantheon and is first mentioned at the very dawn of writing in the...
Naram-Sin
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Naram-Sin

Naram-Sin (r. 2261-2224 BCE) was the last great king of the Akkadian Empire and grandson of Sargon the Great (r. 2334-2279 BCE) who founded the empire. He is considered the most important Akkadian king after Sargon (or, according to some...
Sumerian Civilization, c. 4300 - 2335 BCE
Imageby Simeon Netchev

Sumerian Civilization, c. 4300 - 2335 BCE

A map illustrating the emergence of the Sumerian civilization around 6000 BCE from a collection of city-states on the floodplains of southern Mesopotamia, along the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers in the area that was to later become the Akkadian...
Babylon at the time of Hammurabi
Imageby MapMaster

Babylon at the time of Hammurabi

A locator map of Hammurabi's Babylonia, showing the Babylonian territory upon his ascension in 1792 BC and upon his death in 1750 BC. The river courses and coastline are those of that time period — in general, they are not the modern...
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