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Battle of Adrianople
Definitionby Donald L. Wasson

Battle of Adrianople

The Battle of Adrianople on August 9, 378 CE ranks among the worst military defeats in all of Roman history. Its estimated losses of over 10,000 are comparable to Roman defeats at Cannae (216 BCE) and Carrhae (53 BCE). The battle pitted the...
Roman Warfare & Battles
Lesson Packby Marion Wadowski

Roman Warfare & Battles

We have prepared five lesson plans including classroom activities, assignments, homework, and keys as well as: Multiple choice quiz questions in an excel format Glossary of keywords and concepts in an excel format Open questions...
The Legacy of Charles Martel & the Battle of Tours
Articleby Christopher L. Serafin

The Legacy of Charles Martel & the Battle of Tours

The Battle of Poitiers aka the Battle of Tours took place over roughly a week in early October of 732. The opposing sides consisted of a Frankish army led by Charles Martel (r. 718-741) against an invading Muslim army under the nominal sovereignty...
Battle of Actium
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Battle of Actium

The Battle of Actium (2 September 31 BCE, fought in the Ionian Sea off Actium, Greece) was the decisive engagement of the civil war fought between Octavian Caesar (l. 63-14 CE, later known as Augustus, r. 27 BCE - 14 CE) and the forces of...
Battle of Leuctra
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Battle of Leuctra

The Battle of Leuctra in 371 BCE gave Thebes a decisive victory over Sparta and established Thebes as the most powerful city-state in Greece. The victory was achieved through the daring and brilliant pre-meditated tactics of the Theban general...
Battle of Stamford Bridge
Articleby Mark Cartwright

Battle of Stamford Bridge

The Battle of Stamford Bridge in Yorkshire, England on 25 September 1066 CE saw an army led by English king Harold II (r. Jan-Oct 1066 CE) defeat an invading force led by Harald Hardrada, king of Norway (r. 1046-1066 CE). Hardrada, aided...
The Battle of Gaugamela, 331 BCE
Articleby Grant

The Battle of Gaugamela, 331 BCE

After securing the eastern Mediterranean seaboard and Egypt, Alexander the Great pushed east into Mesopotamia with the intention of bringing Darius to battle. After crossing the Euphrates River unopposed, he marched his army eastward along...
Battle of Immae
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Battle of Immae

The Battle of Immae (272 CE) was fought between the forces of the Roman emperor Aurelian (270-275 CE) and those of the Palmyrene Empire of Zenobia (267-273 CE) resulting in a Roman victory and, ultimately, the capture of Zenobia and an end...
Battle of Red Cliffs
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Battle of Red Cliffs

The Battle of Red Cliffs (also known as the Battle of Chibi, 208 CE) was the pivotal engagement between the forces of Northern China led by the warlord Cao Cao (l. 155-220 CE) and the allied defenders of the south under the command of Liu...
Battle of Gaixia
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Battle of Gaixia

The Battle of Gaixia (202 BCE, also known as Kai-Hsia) was the decisive engagement of the Chu-Han Contention (206-202 BCE) at which Liu Bang (l. c. 256-195 BCE), from the State of Han, defeated Xiang Yu (l. 232-202 BCE) of the State of Chu...
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