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Luther's Speech at the Diet of Worms
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Luther's Speech at the Diet of Worms

Martin Luther's speech at the Diet of Worms (also known as the Here I Stand Speech) is considered one of the greatest pieces of oratory in world history. It was given in response to the council's questions on whether Luther would stand by...
German Peasants' War
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

German Peasants' War

The German Peasants' War (1524-1525) was a conflict between the lower class of the Germanic region of the Holy Roman Empire and the nobility over the feudal system of serfdom, religious freedom, and economic disparity. It was later characterized...
Schmalkaldic War
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Schmalkaldic War

The Schmalkaldic War (1546-1547) was fought between the Protestant Schmalkaldic League and the Catholic armies under Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, who, having failed to achieve religious unity of his subjects at the Diet of Augsburg in 1530...
Olympia Fulvia Morata
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Olympia Fulvia Morata

Olympia Fulvia Morata (l. 1526-1555, also given as Olimpia) was an Italian scholar, poet, and writer who sought to advance the Protestant Reformation in Italy. She was considered one of the greatest classical scholars of her time but was...
Medieval Indulgence & Martin Luther
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Medieval Indulgence & Martin Luther

The medieval indulgence was a writ offered by the Church, for money, guaranteeing the remission of sin, and its abuse was the spark that inspired Martin Luther's 95 Theses. Luther (l. 1483-1546) claimed the sale of indulgences was unbiblical...
Katharina Zell's Defending Clerical Marriage
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Katharina Zell's Defending Clerical Marriage

Defending Clerical Marriage (1524) is an open letter by reformer and theologian Katharina Zell (nee Sch├╝tz, l. 1497-1562), written to justify the marriage of Christian clergy. The Catholic Church prohibited clerical marriage, but Katharina...
French Wars of Religion
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

French Wars of Religion

The French Wars of Religion (1562-1598) were a series of eight conflicts between Protestant and Catholic factions in France lasting 36 years and concluding with the Protestant King Henry IV (r. 1589-1610) converting to Catholicism in the...
Puritans
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Puritans

The Puritans were English Protestant Christians, primarily active in the 16th-18th centuries CE, who claimed the Anglican Church had not distanced itself sufficiently from Catholicism and sought to 'purify' it of Catholic practices. The term...
John Wycliffe
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

John Wycliffe

John Wycliffe (l. 1330-1384, also John Wyclif) was an English theologian, priest, and scholar, recognized as a forerunner to the Protestant Reformation in Europe. Wycliffe condemned the practices of the medieval Church, citing many of the...
The Elizabethan Religious Settlement
Articleby Mark Cartwright

The Elizabethan Religious Settlement

The Elizabethan Religious Settlement was a collection of laws and decisions concerning religious practices introduced between 1558-63 CE by Elizabeth I of England (r. 1558-1603 CE). The settlement continued the English Reformation which had...
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