Argula von Grumbach
Argula von Grumbach (née von Stauff, l. 1490 to c. 1564) was a Bavarian theologian, writer, and reformer, who became a controversial figure after her 1523 letter To the University of Ingolstadt protesting the arrest of a young scholar for...
Jan Hus (also John Huss, l. c. 1369-1415) was a Czech philosopher, priest, and theologian who, inspired by the work of John Wycliffe (l. 1330-1384) challenged the policies and practices of the medieval Church and so launched the Bohemian...
Müntzer's Vindication and Refutation
The Vindication and Refutation of Thomas Müntzer (l. c. 1489-1525) is a 1524 open letter to Jesus Christ, Martin Luther (l. 1483-1546), and the Christian community charging Luther with hypocrisy, betraying his original vision to win support...
Huldrych Zwingli (l. 1484-1531) was a Swiss priest who became the leader of the Protestant Reformation in the region at the same time Martin Luther (l. 1483-1546) was active in Germany. Zwingli is known as the 'third man of the Reformation'...
Philip Melanchthon (l. 1497-1560) was a German scholar and theologian who provided the intellectual rationale and systematized theology for the reformed vision of Christianity of his friend Martin Luther (l. 1483-1546). He was always overshadowed...
William Farel (c. 1489-1565), Théodore de Bèze (1519-1605), John Calvin (1509-1564) and John Knox (1514-1572), stone monument portraying prominent figures of the Protestant Reformation, by Paul Landowski and Henri Bouchard, 1909. Geneva.
Reformation in Germany
Joseph Fiennes as Martin Luther (1483-1546) in Luther (2003). Image credit: Eikon Film and NFP Teleart.
Marie Dentière's A Very Useful Epistle
A Very Useful Epistle (Epistre tres utile, 1539) is an open letter by the female reformer Marie Dentière (l. c. 1495-1561) to Marguerite of Navarre (l. 1492-1549) advocating for a greater role for women in the work of the Protestant Reformation...
Religions in Europe in the 16th Century
A map illustrating the dominant religious divisions in Europe as the Reformation revolution in the Catholic church burned through Europe in the 16th century. Meanwhile, at the edges of the continent, the Islam introduced to the Balkans by...
William Tyndale (l.c. 1494-1536) was a talented English linguist, scholar and priest who was the first to translate the Bible into English. Tyndale objected to the Catholic Church’s control of scripture in Latin and the prohibition against...