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Protestant Reformation
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Protestant Reformation

The Protestant Reformation (1517-1648) refers to the widespread religious, cultural, and social upheaval of 16th-century Europe that broke the hold of the medieval Church, allowing for the development of personal interpretations of the Christian...
English Reformation
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

English Reformation

The English Reformation began with Henry VIII of England (r. 1509-1547 CE) and continued in stages over the rest of the 16th century CE. The process witnessed the break away from the Catholic Church headed by the Pope in Rome. The Protestant...
Bohemian Reformation
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Bohemian Reformation

The Bohemian Reformation (c. 1380 to c. 1436) was the first concerted effort by Catholic clergy to reform the abuses and corruption of the medieval Church. Bohemian clerics and theologians called for reform and, like later advocates, initially...
Kappel Wars
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Kappel Wars

The Kappel Wars (also known as the Wars of Kappel) were armed conflicts between Protestants and Catholics in Switzerland during the Swiss Reformation. The First Kappel War ended before it began in 1529, while the second, in 1531, concluded...
Jan Hus
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Jan Hus

Jan Hus (also John Huss, l. c. 1369-1415) was a Czech philosopher, priest, and theologian who, inspired by the work of John Wycliffe (l. 1330-1384) challenged the policies and practices of the medieval Church and so launched the Bohemian...
Huldrych Zwingli
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Huldrych Zwingli

Huldrych Zwingli (l. 1484-1531) was a Swiss priest who became the leader of the Protestant Reformation in the region at the same time Martin Luther (l. 1483-1546) was active in Germany. Zwingli is known as the 'third man of the Reformation'...
Philip Melanchthon
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Philip Melanchthon

Philip Melanchthon (l. 1497-1560) was a German scholar and theologian who provided the intellectual rationale and systematized theology for the reformed vision of Christianity of his friend Martin Luther (l. 1483-1546). He was always overshadowed...
Religions in Europe in the 16th Century
Imageby Simeon Netchev

Religions in Europe in the 16th Century

A map illustrating the dominant religious divisions in Europe as the Reformation revolution in the Catholic church burned through Europe in the 16th century. Meanwhile, at the edges of the continent, the Islam introduced to the Balkans by...
Two Accounts of Zwingli's Death
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Two Accounts of Zwingli's Death

Huldrych Zwingli (l. 1484-1531) died in the second of the Kappel Wars in 1531, a conflict between Catholic and Protestant forces. Afterwards, two accounts of his death emerged – one Catholic and one Protestant – differing in detail and notable...
Zwingli's 67 Articles
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Zwingli's 67 Articles

Huldrych Zwingli (l. 1484-1531) wrote his 67 Articles in 1523 as a confession of faith to be presented at the First Disputation in Zürich where he defended his beliefs against accusations of heresy by the Catholic Church. Zwingli's 67 Articles...
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