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Kingdom of Luba
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Kingdom of Luba

The Kingdom of Luba, located in central Africa, thrived from the 15th to 19th century CE and was the first such state in the Congo basin. Skills in ironworking and trade along the Lualaba river in such metals as copper permitted the Luba...
Etchmiadzin Cathedral
Definitionby James Blake Wiener

Etchmiadzin Cathedral

The Etchmiadzin Cathedral (also spelled "Echmiatsin,” “Echmiadzin,” and “Edjmiadsin”) is located in the city of Etchmiadzin (also referred to as Vagharshapat), Armavir Province in what is now present-day...
Ancient Israelite Art
Definitionby William Brown

Ancient Israelite Art

Ancient Israelite art traditions are evident especially on stamps seals, ivories from Samaria, and carvings, each with motifs connecting it to more general artistic traditions throughout the Levant. Ancient Israel, and therefore its art...
Celtic Warfare
Definitionby Jeffrey King

Celtic Warfare

The Celts were a linguistic group which spanned across a wide geographic area and included numerous cultures and ethnicities. Because of this fact, the traditions, practices, and lifestyles of Celtic-speaking peoples varied considerably...
Roman Britain
Definitionby Donald L. Wasson

Roman Britain

Britain was a significant addition to the ever-expanding Roman Empire. For decades Rome had been conquering the Mediterranean Sea - defeating Carthage in the Punic Wars, overwhelming Macedon and Greece, and finally marching into Syria and...
Portuguese Angola
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Portuguese Angola

Portuguese Angola in southwest Africa was the first European colony on that continent. While settlement from 1571 proved problematic in the interior, the Portuguese did obtain a large number of slaves which they shipped to their Atlantic...
Etruscan Pottery
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Etruscan Pottery

Etruscan pottery, produced over five centuries, was nothing if not varied. Indigenous wares such as the glossy black bucchero were made alongside red- and black-figure pottery imitating, yet modifying those produced in the Greek world. Geometric...
Stirling Castle
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Stirling Castle

Stirling Castle, located on a strategically important rocky outcrop by the River Forth in central Scotland, was a key royal residence from the late 11th century into the early modern period and subject to many battles and sieges, particularly...
Hallstatt Culture
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Hallstatt Culture

The Hallstatt culture is named after the site of that name in Austria and it flourished in central Europe from the 8th to 6th century BCE. The full period of its presence extends from c. 1200 to c. 450 BCE - from the Late Bronze Age to the...
La Tène Culture
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

La Tène Culture

The La Tène culture (c. 450 - c. 50 BCE) is named after the site of that name on the northern shores of Lake Neuchâtel in Switzerland. It replaced the earlier Hallstatt culture (c. 1200 - c. 450 BCE) as the dominant culture of central Europe...
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