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The Admonitions of Ipuwer
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

The Admonitions of Ipuwer

The Admonitions of Ipuwer (also known as The Papyrus Ipuwer and The Admonitions of an Egyptian Sage) is a literary text dated to the Middle Kingdom of Egypt (2040-1782 BCE). The only extant copy of the work, preserved on the Papyrus Leiden...
Grave Goods in Ancient Egypt
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Grave Goods in Ancient Egypt

The concept of the afterlife changed in different eras of Egypt's very long history, but for the most part, it was imagined as a paradise where one lived eternally. To the Egyptians, their country was the most perfect place which had been...
Ancient Egyptian Taxes & the Cattle Count
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Ancient Egyptian Taxes & the Cattle Count

The gods of ancient Egypt freely gave their bounty to the people who worked the land, but this did not exempt those farmers from paying taxes on that bounty to the government. Egypt was a cashless society until the Persian Period (c. 525...
The Coffin Texts
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

The Coffin Texts

The Coffin Texts (c. 2134-2040 BCE) are 1,185 spells, incantations, and other forms of religious writing inscribed on coffins to help the deceased navigate the afterlife. They include the text known as the Book of Two Ways which is the first...
The Egyptian Amulet: Pious Symbols of Spiritual Life
Articleby P. Joseph D.

The Egyptian Amulet: Pious Symbols of Spiritual Life

Material Objects & Cultures Material objects convey volumes about the people who possessed them. Cultures and societies in every generation are in part classified - either correctly or incorrectly - by the objects or symbols they...
Letters to the Dead in Ancient Egypt
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Letters to the Dead in Ancient Egypt

The question of what happens after death has been addressed by religious beliefs and philosophies of every world culture throughout recorded history and ancient Egypt is famous for its own response to the mysteries of the afterlife. Their...
Timeline of Ancient Egypt
Imageby Jan van der Crabben

Timeline of Ancient Egypt

A timeline showing all the key periods in ancient Egyptian history: - Old Kingdom (2613-2181 BCE) - First Intermediate Period (2181-2040 BCE) - Middle Kingdom (2040-1782 BCE) - Second Intermediate Period (1782-1570 BCE) - New Kingdom...
Mentuhotep II Head
Imageby Mark Cartwright

Mentuhotep II Head

Limestone head of Egyptian pharaoh Mentuhotep II, 11th Dynasty 2061-2010 BCE. The head comes from a column of the mortuary temple Deir el-Bahari at Thebes West. Mentuhotep II was the Theban king who ruled for half a century and reunified...
Egyptian stela from Intef blocks at a temple precinct
Imageby Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin

Egyptian stela from Intef blocks at a temple precinct

On this fragment of a limestone stela, a man sits, facing to the right; behind him, a trace of a women appears. The hieroglyphs mention a reference to an acquisition of three different kinds of animals. From the pavement of Intef blocks in...
Egyptian Funerary Stele from the First Intermediate Period
Imageby Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin

Egyptian Funerary Stele from the First Intermediate Period

This is a door-shaped limestone stele of a priestess of the goddess Hathor. First Intermediate Period, 2134-2040 BCE. From Egypt. (Ancient Orient Museum, Istanbul, Turkey).
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