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Herodotus: On The Customs of the Persians
Articleby Herodotus

Herodotus: On The Customs of the Persians

Herodotus (484-425 BCE) the Greek historian who wrote extensively on the Persian Empire, here describes Persian customs as they would have been practiced around the year 430 BCE at Susa and other Persian communities. The passage, from Book...
Samaritans
Definitionby Rebecca Denova

Samaritans

The Samaritans are a religious sect of ethnic Jews living near Mount Gerizim, Nablus, Hebron, and the West Bank in Israel. This community differs from mainstream Judaism by claiming that followers only accept the five books of Moses (Torah...
Xenophon
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Xenophon

Xenophon of Athens (430-c.354 BCE) was a contemporary of Plato and a fellow student of Socrates. He is known for his writings, especially his Anabasis, Memorobilia and his Apology (the latter two dealing with Socrates and, besides Plato's...
Twelve Great Women of Ancient Persia
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Twelve Great Women of Ancient Persia

Women in ancient Persia had more rights and greater freedom than any other ancient civilization including, according to some scholars, even ancient Egypt which is famous for its respect for the feminine principle in religion as well as daily...
Women in Ancient Persia
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Women in Ancient Persia

Women in ancient Persia were not only highly respected but, in many cases, considered the equals of males. Women could own land, conduct business, received equal pay, could travel freely on their own, and in the case of royal women, hold...
Ten Ancient Persia Facts You Need to Know
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Ten Ancient Persia Facts You Need to Know

Ancient Persian culture exerted a powerful influence throughout the Near East, and beyond, for over a thousand years between c. 550 BCE - 651 CE and many aspects of their culture continued to influence others afterwards and up through the...
The Achaemenid Persian Empire c. 500 BCE
Imageby Simeon Netchev

The Achaemenid Persian Empire c. 500 BCE

A map illustrating the rise and evolution of the Achaemenid Persian Empire (from the name of Achaemenes, an ancestor of the empire's founder, Cyrus the Great) from its origins in around 550 BCE when Cyrus II of Persia conquered the Medes...
Map of Persia and the March of the Ten Thousand
Imageby US Military Academy

Map of Persia and the March of the Ten Thousand

A map of Persia, indicating major settlements, regions, and mountain ranges, as well as the march of the Ten Thousand (dotted line). The Ten Thousand were a group of mercenary units, mainly Greek, drawn up by Cyrus the Younger to attempt...
Xerxes I
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Xerxes I

Xerxes I (l. 519-465, r. 486-465 BCE), also known as Xerxes the Great, was the king of the Persian Achaemenid Empire. His official title was Shahanshah which, though usually translated as `emperor', actually means `king of kings'. He is identified...
Behistun Inscription
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Behistun Inscription

The Behistun Inscription is a relief with accompanying text carved 330 feet (100 meters) up a cliff in Kermanshah Province, Western Iran. The work tells the story of the victory of the Persian king Darius I (the Great, r. 522-486 BCE) over...
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