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The Hippodrome of Constantinople
Articleby Mark Cartwright

The Hippodrome of Constantinople

The Hippodrome of Constantinople was an arena used for chariot racing throughout the Byzantine period. First built during the reign of Roman emperor Septimius Severus in the early 3rd century CE, the structure was made more grandiose by emperor...
Byzantine Icons
Articleby Mark Cartwright

Byzantine Icons

Icons, that is images of holy persons, were an important part of the Byzantine Christian Church from the 3rd century CE onwards. Venerated in churches, public places, and private homes, they were often believed to have protective properties...
Early Christianity
Articleby Rebecca Denova

Early Christianity

Emerging from a small sect of Judaism in the 1st century CE, early Christianity absorbed many of the shared religious, cultural, and intellectual traditions of the Greco-Roman world. In traditional histories of Western culture, the emergence...
Six Great Heresies of the Middle Ages
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Six Great Heresies of the Middle Ages

The medieval Church established its monopoly over the spiritual life of Europeans in the Early Middle Ages (c. 476-1000) and consolidated that power throughout the High Middle Ages (1000-1300) and Late Middle Ages (1300-1500). Along the way...
Roman Empire
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Roman Empire

The Roman Empire, at its height (c. 117 CE), was the most extensive political and social structure in western civilization. By 285 CE the empire had grown too vast to be ruled from the central government at Rome and so was divided by Emperor...
Charlemagne
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Charlemagne

Charlemagne (Charles the Great, also known as Charles I, l. 742-814) was King of the Franks (r. 768-814), King of the Franks and Lombards (r. 774-814), and Holy Roman Emperor (r. 800-814). He is among the best-known and most influential figures...
Trinity
Definitionby Rebecca Denova

Trinity

The Christian doctrine of the Trinity (from the Latin trinus, meaning "threefold") professes that there is one God, but three eternal and consubstantial persons (aspects): the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit. The Father is the God of...
Visual Chronology of Roman Emperors: Augustus to Constantine
Articleby Mark Cartwright

Visual Chronology of Roman Emperors: Augustus to Constantine

The Julio-Claudian Dynasty Augustus 16 Jan 27 BCE - 19 Aug 14 CE Tiberius 18 Sep 14 CE - 16 Mar 37 CE Caligula 18 Mar 37 CE - 24 Jan 41 CE Claudius 25 Jan 41 CE - 13 Oct 54 CE Nero 13 Oct 54 CE - 11 Jun...
Unam Sanctam: Spiritual Authority & the Medieval Church
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Unam Sanctam: Spiritual Authority & the Medieval Church

The medieval Church developed and retained its power by encouraging the innate human fear of death and the Church's vision of itself as the only path to salvation from hell. The pagan systems of the past all had some version of judgment after...
Justinian II
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Justinian II

Justinian II “the Slit-nosed” ruled as emperor of the Byzantine Empire in two spells: from 685 to 695 CE and then again from 705 to 711 CE. It was after his first reign and prior to his exile that his nose was cut off by the usurper...
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