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Map of the Urnfield Culture c. 1300 BCE
Imageby Simeon Netchev

Map of the Urnfield Culture c. 1300 BCE

A map illustrating the spread and context of the late-Bronze Age culture in Europe known as the Urnfield culture by around 1300 BCE. The Urnfield culture is generally recognized as one of the root cultures of the Celts.
Mongol Empire
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Mongol Empire

The Mongol Empire (1206-1368) was founded by Genghis Khan (r. 1206-1227), first Great Khan or 'universal ruler' of the Mongol peoples. Genghis forged the empire by uniting nomadic tribes of the Asian steppe and creating a devastatingly effective...
Genghis Khan
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Genghis Khan

Genghis Khan (aka Chinggis Khan) was the founder of the Mongol Empire which he ruled from 1206 until his death in 1227. Born Temujin, he acquired the title of Genghis Khan, likely meaning 'universal ruler’, after unifying the Mongol tribes...
Cicero
Definitionby James Lloyd

Cicero

Marcus Tullius Cicero was a Roman orator, statesman, and writer. He was born on 6 January 106 BCE at either Arpinum or Sora, 70 miles south-east of Rome, in the Volscian mountains. His father was an affluent eques, and the family was distantly...
The Secret History of the Mongols
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

The Secret History of the Mongols

The Secret History of the Mongols is a chronicle written in the 13th century CE (with some later additions) and is the most important and oldest medieval Mongolian text. The book covers the origins of the Mongol people, the rise to power...
Livy
Definitionby Donald L. Wasson

Livy

Without the valuable contributions of historians, later generations would have little knowledge of the past - the good as well as the bad. Herodotus and Thucydides, the fathers of historical writing, would never have written their histories...
Plutarch
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Plutarch

L. Mestrius Plutarchus, better known simply as Plutarch, was a Greek writer and philosopher who lived between c. 45-50 CE and c. 120-125 CE. A prodigious and hugely influential writer, he is now most famous for his biographical works in his...
Tacitus
Definitionby Donald L. Wasson

Tacitus

Publius Cornelius Tacitus (l. c. 56 - c. 118 CE) was a Roman historian, active throughout the reign of Trajan (r. 98-117 CE) and the early years of Hadrian (r. 117-138 CE). His best-known works are Histories and Annals, which cover the history...
Sima Qian
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Sima Qian

Sima Qian (l. 145/135-86 BCE) was a court scribe, astrologer, and historian of the Han Dynasty (202 BCE - 220 CE) of ancient China, famous for his historical work Records of the Grand Historian for which he is remembered as the Father of...
Suetonius
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Suetonius

Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus (c. 69 – c. 130/140 CE), better known simply as Suetonius, was a Roman writer whose most famous work is his biographies of the first 12 Caesars. With a position close to the imperial court he was able to...
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