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Kukii Heiau
Definitionby Seth Eislund

Kukii Heiau

Located at the easternmost point of the Hawaiian Islands, Cape Kumukahi holds a special place in ancient Hawaiian mythology as this was where the gods and goddesses first arrived in the islands from Tahiti. It was here that the fire goddess...
The Style & Regional Differences of Seljuk Minarets in Persia
Articleby Fatema AlSulaiti

The Style & Regional Differences of Seljuk Minarets in Persia

Under the Seljuk rule, Persia gained a period of economic and cultural prosperity. The innovative techniques of the Seljuk period and style in architecture and the arts had a strong influence on later artistic developments. Seljuk art is...
Abu Bakr
Definitionby Syed Muhammad Khan

Abu Bakr

Abu Bakr (l. 573-634 CE, r. 632-634 CE) was an early convert of Islam; he was a close friend and confidant of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad, and became the first caliph of the Islamic empire – a successor to Muhammad's temporal position but...
Ottoman Zulfiqar Flag
Imageby User:FA2010

Ottoman Zulfiqar Flag

Silk damask flag from Istanbul, dated 1810–1811 CE; it depicts the zulfiqar, Caliph Ali's (r. 656-661 CE) two-pronged sword.
Calligraphic Representation of Husayn's Name
Imageby Effective Light

Calligraphic Representation of Husayn's Name

An adapted version of the calligraphic pane of Husayn ibn Ali in the Hagia Sophia, Istanbul.
Umar
Definitionby Syed Muhammad Khan

Umar

Umar ibn al-Khattab (r. 634-644 CE) was the second caliph of the Rashidun Caliphate (632-661 CE, as the first four caliphs are referred to by the Sunni Muslims). He was an early convert of Islam and one of the close companions of the Islamic...
Anahita
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Anahita

Anahita is the ancient Persian goddess of fertility, water, health and healing, and wisdom. Owing to her association with life-giving properties, she also came to be connected with ancient Persian warfare as soldiers would pray to her for...
Ridda Wars
Definitionby Syed Muhammad Khan

Ridda Wars

The Ridda Wars or the Wars of Apostasy (632-633 CE) were a series of military engagements between the armies of the Rashidun Caliphate (632-661 CE) and the renegade tribes of Arabia. The rebels had renounced their allegiance with the nascent...
The Spread of Islam in Ancient Africa
Articleby Mark Cartwright

The Spread of Islam in Ancient Africa

Following the conquest of North Africa by Muslim Arabs in the 7th century CE, Islam spread throughout West Africa via merchants, traders, scholars, and missionaries, that is largely through peaceful means whereby African rulers either tolerated...
Early Muslim Conquests (622-656 CE)
Articleby Syed Muhammad Khan

Early Muslim Conquests (622-656 CE)

Islam arose as a religious and socio-political force in Arabia in the 7th century CE (610 CE onwards). The Islamic Prophet Muhammad (l. 570-632 CE), despite facing resistance and persecution, amassed a huge following and started building...
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