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Calligraphy of Ali's Name
Imageby Petermaleh

Calligraphy of Ali's Name

A beautified calligraphic rendition of the name of Ali, the fourth Rashidun Caliph (r. 656-661 CE).
Songhai Empire
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Songhai Empire

The Songhai Empire (aka Songhay, c. 1460 - c. 1591) replaced the Mali Empire (1240-1645) as the most important state in West Africa (covering modern southern Mauritania and Mali). Originating as a smaller kingdom along the eastern bend of...
Rashidun Government
Definitionby Syed Muhammad Khan

Rashidun Government

The Rashidun Caliphate (632-661 CE) was responsible for setting up the basis of the Islamic empire and expanding its borders beyond the Arabian soil. These leaders were selected by the consent of the people and based on their own merits...
Ali & Aisha at the Battle of the Camel
Imageby Unknown

Ali & Aisha at the Battle of the Camel

A painting from manuscript of the "Rawdat al-safa" (Persian for "Gardens of Purity") made in Iran c. 1571 - 1572 CE. The painting depicts Ali (r. 656 - 661 CE) and Aisha (c. 613 - 678 CE), who led the opposing factions at the Battle of the...
Calligraphic Depiction of Ali as a Lion
Imageby Ishvara7

Calligraphic Depiction of Ali as a Lion

Shiite calligraphy depicting Caliph Ali (r. 656-661 CE) as the Lion of God.
Gold Coin of Mamluk Sultan Al-Mansur Ali
Imageby American Numismatic Society

Gold Coin of Mamluk Sultan Al-Mansur Ali

Gold dinar of Mamluk sultan al-Mansur Ali minted in Cairo in 1258/59 CE.
Minaret Top, Ali Mosque, Isfahan
Imageby Bruce Allardice (used with permission)

Minaret Top, Ali Mosque, Isfahan

The minaret of the Ali Mosque Manar, Isfahan, Iran (1118-1157 CE). Erected during the reign of Seljuk sultan Sanjar (118-1157 CE). Decorated by two balconies. The shaft below the balconies embellished with interlocking stars in recess, altering...
Minaret, Ali Mosque, Isfahan
Imageby Bruce Allardice (used with permission)

Minaret, Ali Mosque, Isfahan

The minaret of the Ali Mosque, Isfahan, Iran. Erected during the reign of Seljuk sultan Sanjar (118-1157 CE). Decorated by two balconies. The shaft below the balconies embellished with interlocking stars in recess, altering to a diamond pattern...
Abbasid Dynasty
Definitionby Syed Muhammad Khan

Abbasid Dynasty

The Abbasids were an Arabic dynasty that initially ruled over most of the Islamic empire (save some western parts) after assuming the caliphate in 750 CE, later on, their empire fragmented, however, they retained spiritual supremacy as caliphs...
Persian Rose-and-Nightingale Paintings
Definitionby Pegah Eidipour

Persian Rose-and-Nightingale Paintings

Rose-and-nightingale paintings and patterns (gul-u-bulbul) are a subtheme of the bird-flower (gul-u-morḡ) genre in Persian art. Bird-and-flower paintings are of Chinese origin and include pictorial elements such as flowers and plants, birds...
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