This artist's illustration shows Bantu farmers using slash-and-burn agriculture to clear arable land.
This cutting tool witnessed the beginning of agriculture. Ubaid period, 5th millennium BCE, Mesopotamia, Iraq. (The Sulaimaniya Museum, Iraq).
Map of the Fertile Crescent
This map shows the location and extent of the Fertile Crescent, a region in the Middle East incorporating ancient Egypt; the Levant; and Mesopotamia.
Map of the World in 1000 BCE
A map of the world in 1000 BCE illustrating: hunter-gatherers (yellow) nomadic pastoralists (purple) simple farming societies (green) complex farming societies/chiefdoms (orange) state societies (blue)
Plowing Egyptian Farmer
circa. 1200 BCE Burial chamber of Sennedjem, Scene: Plowing farmer. "Sennedjem" plowing: (1st and 2nd column in front: "Behold"-(i+Crown), "plowing-by-Hand-(earth), in Osiris's House-Two Lands(of Egypt), col 2: "Sennedjem, ..."True of...
Inca Agricultural Terracing
An Inca circular terracing used to increase agricultural yield. Moray, Peru, 15-16th century CE.
March, Les Très Riches Heures
Les Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry, a medieval illuminated manuscript illustration depicting the work on an agricultural estate during the month of March. In the background, Mesuline is flying in dragon form over Lusignan Castle, c. 1412-1440...
Wooden hoe formed from a wooden handle-shaft, separate wooden blade inserted into a hole in the shaft, and rope bridging the two pieces. This allowed the angle of the blade to be adjusted.
Wooden model of a man ploughing with oxen
From Egypt Middle Kingdom, about 2040-1750 BC An ancient Egyptian farmer at work This model was originally placed in a tomb. Models showing various stages in the production of food were placed in wealthy burials of the Middle Kingdom...
Medieval Peasants Threshing
A 14th century CE manuscript illustration showing peasants threshing wheat. (Luttrell Psalter, British Library, London)