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570 CE: Muhammad is born in Mecca.
610 CE: Muhammad receives his first revelation on Mount Hira.
622 CE: Muhammad undertakes the Hegira (Hijra), the migration from Mecca to Medina, establishing the start of the Islamic calendar.
624 CE: Battle of Badr: Muhammad's forces win, resulting in a turning point for Islam against the ruling Quraysh tribe.
625 CE: Battle of Uhud: Quraysh tribe defeats the Muslims.
627 CE: Battle of the Trench: Quraysh troops attempt to siege Medina (then called Yathrib), but lose to the Muslim force.
627 CE: Siege of Bani Qurayzah: Muslims capture the Jewish stronghold.
628 CE: Treaty of Hudaybiyyah: A peace agreement is signed between Muhammad's Muslims and the people of Mecca.
628 CE: Conquest of Khaybar oasis: Jews barricade themselves in a fort at Khaybar oasis and are allowed to remain living there if they pay the Muslims one third of their produce.
629 CE: First Pilgrimage ("lesser" pilgrimage or "umrah") made by Muhammad and his Muslims to Mecca after migrating to Medina.
629 CE: Battle of Mu'tah: Muslims attempt to capture the village east of the Jordan River from the Byzantine Empire to show their expanding dominance, resulting in a Muslim defeat.
630 CE: Non-violent conquest of Mecca: The Quraysh realize that the Muslims now greatly outnumber them and allow the Muslims to capture their city, Mecca, and rule it as they please.
630 CE: Battle of Hunayn: Ending in a decisive victory for the Muslims over the Bedouin tribe of Hawazin.
630 CE: Attempted Siege of Ta'if: Muhammad's forces are initially unable to siege Ta'if and convert its people to Islam.
632 CE: "Farewell Hajj Pilgrimage": This is the only Hajj pilgrimage in which Muhammad participates.
632 CE: Muhammad dies in Medina, not clearly naming a successor to lead the Muslim people.
632 CE - 634 CE: Abu Bakr becomes the first caliph (successor to Muhammad) of the Rashidun Caliphate.
634 CE - 644 CE: 'Umar ibn al-Khattab succeeds Abu Bakr, becoming the second caliph of the Rashidun Caliphate.
637 CE: Muslim invasion of the Levant. The Byzantines are driven out.
644 CE - 656 CE: 'Uthman ibn 'Affan succeeds Umar to become the third caliph of the Rashidun Caliphate.
650 CE: Uthman orders the establishment of one "true" Quran while destroying the others.
651 CE: Muslim Conquest of Mesopotamia.
656 CE - 661 CE: Ali ibn Abi Talib succeeds Uthman to become the fourth and final caliph of the Rashidun Caliphate.
670 CE: Hasan ibn Ali, Shia Islam's second imam (his father, Ali ibn Abi Talib, being the first imam), is poisoned to death.
680 CE: Husayn ibn Ali, Shia Islam's third imam, is beheaded by Yazid I's force at the Battle of Karbala in present-day Iraq.
750 CE: Fall of the Umayyad Caliphate.
750 CE: Start of the Abbasid Caliphate.
754 CE - 775 CE: Reign of Al-Mansur over the Abbasid Caliphate.
756 CE: Abd al-Rahman I establishes the Emirate of Cordoba.
756 CE - 788 CE: Reign of Abd al-Rahman I over the Emirate of Cordoba.
777 CE: Zaragoza invites Charlemagne into Spain.
783 CE: The city of Zaragoza falls to forces from the Emirate of Cordoba.
784 CE: Abd al-Rahman I begins construction on the Great Mosque of Cordoba.
788 CE: Death of Abd al-Rahman I of the Emirate of Cordoba.
1031 CE: Fall of the Umayyad Caliphate of Cordoba.
1313 CE - 1341 CE: Uzbeg rules the Golden Horde and makes Islam the state religion.