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304 BCE: Seleucos I refounds and renames the ancient city thereafter known as Edessa.
132 BCE: Osreoene, with its capital at Edessa, declares itself an independent kingdom.
68 BCE - 53 BCE: Reign of Abgar II, king of Osroene.
109 CE - 116 CE: Reign of Abgar VII, king of Osroene.
179 CE - 216 CE: Reign of Abgar IX, king of Osroene.
202 CE: The earliest record of a Christian church at Edessa.
242 CE: Osroene, with its capital at Edessa, is made into a Roman province.
260 CE: Shapur I captures the Roman emperor Valerian at Edessa.
503 CE: Kavad, king of the Sasanian Empire, unsuccessfully besieges Edessa.
544 CE: Chosroes I, king of the Sasanian Empire, unsuccessfully besieges Edessa.
640 CE: Edessa is ruled by Muslim Arabs.
654 CE: According to Theophanes, a Jewish merchant transports the pieces of the fallen Colossus of Rhodes to Edessa for melting down.
944 CE: A Byzantine army led by John Kourkouas besieges Edessa. The Mandylion icon is taken to Constantinople
1036 CE: The Emirs of Mayyafariqin and Harran attack the Byzantine city of Edessa.
1098 CE: Baldwin of Boulogne takes control of Edessa and the County of Edessa is formed, one of four Crusader-created states in the Levant.
1144 CE: The Muslim Seljuk Turks, led by Imad ad-Din Zangi, capture Edessa.
1146 CE: Joscelin II's attempt to retake Edessa fails and the city is sacked by Nur ad-Din.
1147 CE - 1149 CE: The Second Crusade is launched to recapture Edessa for Christendom. It is not successful.
1150 CE: End of the County of Edessa.