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656 CE - 661 CE: The murder of Caliph Uthman causes the eruption of the First Fitna (civil war). Muawiya surfaces as a major opposer of the Rashidun Caliphate.
661 CE - 750 CE: The Umayyad Dynasty rules the Islamic empire.
661 CE: Muawiya, the governor of Syria, establishes the Umayyad Dynasty.
680 CE - 692 CE: The Second Fitna (second Islamic civil war).
680 CE: Husayn's death marks the start of the second civil war of Islamic history (Second Fitna).
680 CE: Husayn ibn Ali, Shia Islam's third imam, is beheaded by Yazid I's force at the Battle of Karbala in present-day Iraq.
685 CE: Al-Mukhtar starts his revolt; he joins hands withe Abdullah ibn Zubayr.
687 CE: Al-Mukhtar has a falling out with Abdullah, owing to his support to the Alid faction - he is killed by Zubayrid forces.
711 CE - 714 CE: Conquest of most of Spain by the Umayyad Dynasty.
712 CE: Military conquests as far as the Beas river in parts of modern-day Pakistan by the Umayyad forces - under Muhammad ibn Qasim.
713 CE: Successful annexation of modern-day Transoxiana by Qutayba ibn Muslim.
715 CE: Sulayman rises to power; expansion of the Umayyad Caliphate is halted.
717 CE - 718 CE: An unsuccessful attempt to take over Constantinople; after Sulayman's death, his successor Umar II calls back the forces.
743 CE - 747 CE: The Third Fitna (civil war of the Islamic empire): Marwan II emerges as the victor.
750 CE: Fall of the Umayyad Caliphate.
750 CE: Start of the Abbasid Caliphate.
756 CE: Abd al-Rahman I establishes the Emirate of Cordoba.
756 CE - 788 CE: Reign of Abd al-Rahman I over the Emirate of Cordoba.