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753 BCE: The legendary founding date of Rome.
534 BCE - 510 BCE: Reign of Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, last king of Rome.
509 BCE: Quaestors become a prominent position in the Roman Republic.
495 BCE: Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, last king of Rome, dies in exile at Cumae.
484 BCE: The first temple of the Dioscuri (Castor & Pollux) is dedicated in Rome's Forum Romanum by Aulus Postumius following his victory over the Latins at the Battle of Lake Regillus.
450 BCE: The laws of the 'Twelve Tables', the basis of Roman law, are compiled.
450 BCE: The number of Roman quaestors is increased to four and made open to plebians.
440 BCE: Roman quaestors are chosen by the assembly rather than the consuls.
367 BCE: Livy mentions Celtic armies in Ancona and one such group moves against Rome once more.
343 BCE - 341 BCE: First Samnite War (Rome vs. Samnites).
340 BCE - 338 BCE: Latin War, victory for Rome.
334 BCE: Rome signs a peace treaty with the Senones tribe.
326 BCE - 304 BCE: Second Samnite War.
298 BCE - 290 BCE: Third Samnite War. Victory for Rome, peace with the Etruscans.
297 BCE: Celts and Samnites join forces and defeat the Romans at Camertium.
295 BCE: In a battle lasting all day, Romans narrowly defeat a force of Celts and Samnites at Sentinum.
294 BCE: A Roman army led by L. Postimius Megellus defeats an army from Etruscan Volsinii.
285 BCE - 282 BCE: Rome defeats the Celts in Italy. Rome's dominance in central Italy is secured.
285 BCE: Roman forces heavily defeat the Senones at Lake Vadimo.
284 BCE: Gauls of the Insubres and Boii tribes defeat the Romans at Arretium.
283 BCE: Rome decisively defeats the Senones at Picenum.
283 BCE: Romans defeat the Etruscans and Celts at lake Vadimo.
282 BCE: A Celtic army with many youth among their ranks is again defeated by Romans.
280 BCE - 272 BCE: Roman war against Tarentum. Rome conquers Tarentum. Rome's dominance in lower Italy is secured.
280 BCE: The Romans conquer the Etruscan cities of Tarquinia, Volsinii and Vulci.
264 BCE - 241 BCE: First Punic War. Carthage cedes Sicily to Rome.
241 BCE - 238 BCE: The rebellion of the mercenaries: Unpaid mercenaries under the leadership of Mathos and Spendios rebel against Carthage. Despite a peace treaty, Rome seizes the opportunity to strip Carthage of Sardinia and Corsica.
229 BCE - 228 BCE: Rome fights Illyrian pirates. Queen Teuta pays tribute to Rome.
225 BCE: Two Roman armies surround and defeat a Celtic army at Telamon.
223 BCE: Romans successfully campaign against Celtic tribes of Cisalpine Gaul.
222 BCE: Rome conquers Cisalpine Gaul (modern-day Provence, France).
222 BCE: The Celts are defeated at Clastidium by Roman forces.
219 BCE: Illyrian coast is under Roman control.
216 BCE: "Hannibal ante portas." Hannibal directly threatens the city of Rome, but cannot advance due to lack of supplies and reinforcements.
216 BCE: Hannibal wins the battle of Cannae, the worst defeat in Roman history.
215 BCE - 216 BCE: The Boii crush a Roman army 25,000 strong at Litana. Victory was, in part, achieved by pushing precariously cut trees down atop the horrified Romans as they marched.
214 BCE - 205 BCE: First Macedonian War: Rome defeats Philip V of Macedon.
204 BCE: Scipio Africanus sails to North Africa in the Second Punic War.
201 BCE: Syracuse joins the Roman Republic, province of Sicily is formed.
200 BCE - 196 BCE: Second Macedonian War: Roman victory.
193 BCE: The Boii are defeated by the Romans, suffering, according to Livy, 14,000 dead.
191 BCE - 134 BCE: Various resistance movements against Rome in Iberia. Viriato leads the Lusitanians against Rome from 154 to 139 BC.
191 BCE: Antiochus III and his army, including many Galatians, are defeated by Rome at Magnesia.
190 BCE: Battle of Magnesia ad Sipylum, disastrous defeat for Antiochos III against Romans.
188 BCE: The treaty of Apamea Kibotos. Peace and alliance is established between the Seleucid Empire and Rome joined by its allies, such as Pergamon and Rhodes. The Seleucids have to evacuate all the land and the cities from Asia Minor and to pay a huge war indemnity.
172 BCE - 168 BCE: Third Macedonian War: Perseus of Macedon challenges Rome and is defeated.
149 BCE - 146 BCE: Third Punic War.
146 BCE: Rome sacks Corinth and dissolves the Achaean league. Greece is ruled by Rome.
146 BCE: Roman influence over Greece begins to rise.
137 BCE: 4,000 Celtiberians trap a force of 20,000 Romans at Numantia forcing their surrender.
133 BCE: Rome captures Numantia. End of Iberian resistance.
133 BCE: Attalus III, the last king of Pergamon, bequeathes the whole of Pergamon to Rome.
133 BCE: Numantia falls to the Romans who besiege the oppidum. Mass suicide ensues among many of the survivors. Land reforms by Tiberius Gracchus.
125 BCE: Rome intervenes on behalf of Massalia against the Saluvii Celts.
121 BCE: Gallia Narbonensis becomes a Roman province.
113 BCE: Romans defeated at Noreia by the Cimbri.
109 BCE: Cimbri defeat a Roman army under Julius Silanus.
106 BCE: The governor of the Roman province of Macedonia, M. Minucius Rufus, celebrates his victory over a raid of the Dacians allied with the Celtic tribe of the Scordiscii in the Balkans.
106 BCE: Roman statesman and orator Cicero is born.
105 BCE: Cimbri, Teutons, and Ambrones are victorious at Arausio killing 60,000 Romans.
102 BCE: Marius, after reforming the Roman army, defeats the Teutons and Ambrones at Aquae Sextiae.
101 BCE: At Vercellae the Romans crush the Cimbri.
91 BCE - 89 BCE: Social War between Rome and its Italian allies. Italians want Roman Citizenship and equal share in power. Only won by Rome by granting the Italian wishes.
89 BCE - 63 BCE: Mithridatic Wars between Mithridates VI and Roman Republic .
88 BCE - 87 BCE: First Civil War between Marius and Sulla. First march on Rome by Sulla.
83 BCE: Sulla's second march on Rome. Mass Proscriptions.
83 BCE: Pompey fights under the Roman dictator Sulla.
80 BCE: Sulla is persuaded to give Pompey his first triumph in Rome.
72 BCE: Crixos, a Celt and second in command under Spartacus, is killed. 300 Romans are sacrificed in his honor.
71 BCE: Pompey is granted his second triumph for his victories in Spain.
70 BCE: Pompey and Crassus are made consuls.
67 BCE: The Gabinian Law is passed, giving Pompey great power to deal with pirates.
66 BCE: The Manilian Law is passed, giving Pompey great power to deal with Mithridates VI of Pontus.
64 BCE: Galatia becomes a client state of Rome.
63 BCE: The Roman general Pompey defeats the Seleucid Antiochus XIII and incorporates Syria as a province of the Roman empire.
62 BCE: Pompey returns to Italy, and disbands his army upon landing.
60 BCE - 53 BCE: 'First Triumvirate' between Caesar, Pompey and Crassus.
58 BCE - 51 BCE: Julius Caesar's conquest of Gaul.
58 BCE: Caesar attacks the Helvetii while on migration and defeats them.
58 BCE - 57 BCE: Cicero is exiled from Rome.
56 BCE: The navies of Rome and the Veneti Gauls clash resulting in a Roman victory. This is the first recorded naval battle in the Atlantic Ocean.
55 BCE: Caesar attempts to invade Britain.
54 BCE: Caesar successfully invades Britain but withdraws to Gaul.
54 BCE - 43 CE: Roman influence grows in Britain owing to trade.
54 BCE - 53 BCE: Ambiorix of the Eburones tribe destroys around 9,000 Roman soldiers at Atuatuca.
53 BCE: Battle of Carrhae. Crassus is captured and executed by the Parthians.
52 BCE: Julius Caesar is defeated at Gergovia by Vercingetorix.
52 BCE: After becoming trapped and besieged at Alesia, Vercingetorix surrenders to Caesar.
51 BCE: Caesar's siege and capture of Uxellodunum ends the Gallic War.
49 BCE - 48 BCE: Burebistas sends Acornion of Dionysopolis as ambassador to negotiate an alliance with Pompey.
49 BCE: Caesar crosses the Rubicon. Civil war between Caesar and Pompey begins.
46 BCE: The Bellovaci unsuccessfully rise against Roman rule in Belgica.
44 BCE: The Allobroges unsuccessfully rise against Roman rule in southern Gaul.
44 BCE: Caesar becomes dictator for life. On the 'Ides of March' (15th) he is killed by conspirators including Brutus and Cassius. Octavian, son of Caesars niece Atia, is posthumously adopted as his heir.
43 BCE - 36 BCE: Second Triumvirate: Antony, Octavian, and Lepidus (official approval by the Roman Senate). Mass proscriptions including Cicero.
43 BCE: Roman statesman and orator Cicero dies.
42 BCE: Octavian and Antony defeat Republicans under Brutus and Cassius at the Battle of Philippi (Greece).
36 BCE: Octavian strips Lepidus of all power but Pontifex Maximus (supreme priest). Lepidus dies of old age in 12 BC.
33 BCE: The Belgic Morini and the Celts of Aquitania unsuccessfully rise against Roman rule.
31 BCE: The Battle of Actium. Octavian defeats Mark Antony and Cleopatra VII.
27 BCE: Octavian is given extraordinary powers and the name Augustus by the Roman Senate.