Visual Timeline: Pre-Socratic Philosophers
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610 BCE - 546 BCE: Dates of Anaximander who develops the cosmic theory of the apeiron as the First Cause of existence.
585 BCE: Time in which Thales of Miletus lived.
571 BCE - 497 BCE: Life of Pythagoras of Samos; claim that "number" is the First Cause of existence and the soul is immortal.
570 BCE - 478 BCE: Life of Xenophanes of Colophon; claim of One God as the First Cause of existence.
546 BCE: Date of Anaximenes' work; air is claimed as the First Cause of existence.
500 BCE: Heraclitus of Ephesus lives; claims that change is the essence of life and First Cause.
500 BCE - 428 BCE: Life of Anaxagoras; claim that gods are irrelevant and all phenomena caused by natural forces.
485 BCE: Parmenides flourishes; claims universe is One and pluralism is an illusion.
485 BCE - 415 BCE: Life of the Sophist Protagoras of Abdera; claim that "man is the measure of all things".
484 BCE - 424 BCE: Life of Empedocles who claims that Strife and Love are the two constants in life.
465 BCE: Zeno of Elea flourishes; writes 40 logical paradoxes to support Parmenides' Monist view.
460 BCE - 370 BCE: Life of Democritus, pupil of Leucippus; development of the concept of the atomic universe.
460 BCE - 403 BCE: Life of the tyrant and Sophist Critias; claim that gods do not exist and religion is the invention of the clever to control others.
427 BCE: Sophist Gorgias flourishes; claim that knowledge is unknowable.