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1227 CE - 1255 CE: Batu Khan establishes and rules the Golden Horde.
1236 CE - 1242 CE: Multiple Mongol armies attack western Asia, Russia, Poland, and Hungary.
1238 CE: The Mongols invade Azerbaijan, Georgia, and Armenia.
1241 CE: The Mongols defeat an army led by Henry the Pious, the Duke of Silesia, near Liegnitz (Legnica).
1241 CE: The Mongols defeat an army led by Bela IV, king of Hungary, at the Battle of Mohi.
1251 CE - 1259 CE: Reign of Mongke Khan, ruler of the Mongol Empire.
1257 CE - 1266 CE: Reign of Berke over the Golden Horde.
1260 CE - 1264 CE: Kublai Khan fights a civil war with his brother Ariq Boke for control of the Mongol Empire.
1262 CE: Golden Horde forces under Nogai defeat the Ilkhanate at the Battle of Terek.
1266 CE - 1280 CE: Mengu-Temur rules the Golden Horde.
1271 CE: Golden Horde forces under Nogai invade the Byzantine Empire.
1299 CE: Nogai, the de facto leader of the Golden Horde, dies.
1313 CE - 1341 CE: Uzbeg rules the Golden Horde and makes Islam the state religion.
1327 CE: Uzbeg shifts Golden Horde support from the Russian city of Tver to the rising power of Moscow.
1342 CE - 1357 CE: Janibeg rules the Golden Horde.
1362 CE: Lithuanian forces defeat the Golden Horde at the Battle of Blue Waters.
1380 CE: A Russian army defeats the Golden Horde at the Battle of Kulikovo, seen as the turning point in Mongol domination of Russia.
1380 CE - 1395 CE: Tokhtamysh rules the Golden Horde during a brief revival.
1382 CE: Tokhtamysh and the Golden Horde sack Moscow.
1465 CE - 1481 CE: Reign of Ahmed, the last major ruler of the Golden Horde.
1480 CE: The Golden Horde is definitively defeated by the Russians at the Battle of the Ugra River.