The Dodekaschoinos (literally "Twelve Cities" in Greek) was the name of a region in Lower Nubia that became an important province of the Ptolemaic Kingdom after it was annexed from Meroitic Nubia by the Egyptian kingdom. The area...
Publius Vergilius Maro (70-19 BCE), better known to most modern readers as Virgil, was one of the greatest poets of the early Roman Empire. His best-known work, the Aeneid, told of a Trojan prince, Aeneas, who escaped the burning of Troy...
Warfare is generally understood to be the controlled and systematic waging of armed conflict between sovereign nations or states, using military might and strategy, until one opponent is defeated on the field or sues for peace in the face...
Julio-Claudian Family Tree
Family tree of Julio-Claudian Dynasty, which produced five emperors at the start of the Roman Empire (27 BCE - 68 CE).
Roman Naval Warfare
Military supremacy of the seas could be a crucial factor in the success of any land campaign, and the Romans well knew that a powerful naval fleet could supply troops and equipment to where they were most needed in as short a time as possible...
Caligula (Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus Germanicus) was Roman emperor from 37 to 41 CE. Among the great emperors of the Roman Empire stand Augustus and Marcus Aurelius. At the other end of the spectrum is Emperor Caligula who the historian...
Bust of Empress Livia Drusilla
Marble head of Livia Drusilla, wife of emperor Augustus, from Fayum (Egypt), copy from the 4th century CE or later after an original from 27-23 BCE (Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek, Copenhagen)
Coins of the First Roman Emperor
Julius Caesar was deified after his death and a comet appearing at this time was seen as a manifestation of his spirit. Octavian (later Emperor Augustus), used his coinage to emphasize his relationship to Caesar, his adoptive father, describing...
Legio IX Hispana
Legio IX Hispana served with Julius Caesar in Gaul and against Pompey in the Civil Wars. Later, it fought alongside Augustus in his Cantabrian Wars and was one of the four legions Claudius took with him in his invasion of Britain in 43 CE...
Roman Gaul is an umbrella term for several Roman provinces in western Europe: Cisalpine Gaul or Gallia Cisalpina, comprised a territory situated in the northernmost part of the Italian peninsula ranging from the Apennines in the west northward...